WITHIN THE VINES©
The Quickel Line: 1st Generation America: Michael Quickel [Patriot]
Michael Quickel married Twice. His 1st first  wife was to Barbara MUELLER with whom he also had progeny
This Page details Michael Quickel and his 2nd  Marriage and Progeny with Barbara BAUER / BOHNER
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1 Michael [Johann /John Michael]  QUICKEL1,2
Birth: 20 Jul 1721 [Gravestone] , Brandau, Hessen- Darmstadt, Germany42
Father: Johann Christophel QUICKEL (~1683-1735)
Mother: Anna Barbara  ROSS
Death: 18 Dec 1787, Dover Township, York, Penna [Will written/ Probated July 10, 1785 ,July 29, 1788
Burial:  Quickels Cem, Zion's View Church3,4 His beautiful stone was carved by son John, our direct
Will abstract for Michael Quickel
Immigration: Perth Amboy into Phila, Oct 19, 1736 , in company of two brothers. See Link
Occupation: Yeomen, Teacher at his church of the local children; 
Resided:  Found 1736 in Philadelphia. He resided in the  Conestoga Valley in Lancaster County, where he remained until 1763, at which time he purchased 200 acres of land in what is now Conewago Township  just east of Dover in York County.
Revolutionary Service:
Religion: Founder of Quickel's Lutheran and Reformed Church, in Conewago Township. In 1770, Michael Quickel gave more than 2 acres to the Lutheran and Reformed church which sat at the southwest corner of his original 200 acres [known as Quickel's or Zion Church] 8 Some persons site this church as in Newberry Twp, but it now pertains to Conewago, I believe.
 
žOn March 20, 1770 a deed was executed by Michael Quickel and his wife Barbara conveying two acres and forty seven perches for a consideration of forty shillings, to the elders and trustees of the Zion Lutheran and Reformed Church, which is the first religious organization founded within the present limits of Conewago Township.› This church is known as Quickel's Church.› Michael Quickel stipulated in the deed of conveyance that his wife Barbara should have a pew during her life in the new church, which was built of logs the same year.ž3
Alias:   His brother Philip signed his name Quickel. Michael  appears as John Michael QUICKLE in his marriage record5Quickel entries in the church he founded show for general surname entries both Quickel and Quickle. Other variants of the name include Quiggle. 



Immigration:
Michael Quickel arrived  on the Brigantine John, of Perth Amboy [see transcribed ship's list] ,  George Frazer, Master, from  Rotterdam, but last from Dover arrived Oct 19, 1736  Phila  [One of 37 Foreigners, from the Palatinate, who, with their Families, making in all one hundred and ten persons43]and that day qualified at Phila Courthouse.  He signed with a "0" as his mark.
Two brothers arrived with him:  Johann Philippus , who signed with signature
   and Johann George [who signed with his mark] 
 [original document viewable via marks and signatures  here given]
On this ship was also  Johann›Jost›Mohr› [unverified by me, but some purport this man asbrother in law to the three Quickel Brothers, his wife being Dorothea and  stating she died 28 Feb 1790 in Frederick, Maryland but had many children in York County]



Revolutionary Service:

Michael QUICKEL's Military Service is briefly explored in Barry Rauhauser's text regarding Michael's son John:



2nd Spouse: Barbara  [Widow Bauer] or [Widow Bohmer]
Death: 18 Apr 1802,  Dover, York County, PA.13,14Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802 in Dover Township.
Marr:  2 Jun 1761, Lancaster, Pa(In Church Records of First Reformed Congregation)15
Notes On Barbara:

Children with Barbara Bauer [Widow Bauer] :
Johannes  žJohnÓ(1762-1831)
Balthasar žBaltzerÓ (1765-1818)
Anna [Anna Barbara] (1767-1822) married Conrad FR(E)Y

Other spouses:  Barbara MUELLER. [ Michael's first wife ]


Children with Barbara MUELLER:
Barbara (1742-1814) married Jacob KREIDER
Elizabeth (1744-1824) married Michael KREIDER
Michael (1746-1818) married Anna Maria Catharine FRIDAY
Maria (Anna Maria) (1752-1813) married Conrad EMSINGER
Catharine (1755-1833) married Jacob BARR
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Will Abstract Michael Quickel:
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.7
 

Wife Barbara's Will Abstract

Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802.  Also of Dover Twp., she lists the following children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Phillip Miller,
John and Balthasser.  Grandchildren are John and Ann ( Children of John) and Barbara Miller (Child of Barbara).
 

His son became a stone carver, responsable for some of the most beautiful stones at QuickleŪs Church, and MichaelŪs own was designed and executed by his son. Barry Rauhauser, who has done extensive research on John QuickleŪs Carvings writes ž According to his probate records, it is John Quickel who carves the stoneů a tall, smooth-faced sandstone marker using capitol Roman letters and painted, six-pointed compass stars(Fig. 3).› Though this stone is the only pre-1800 stone that can be attributed to John Quickel by probate record, there are several others in the yard which appear to be carved by the same hand.› The next stone to be documented by probate shows up in 1803.Ó

Barry Rauhauser, curator at the Lancaster Historical Society, and long a student of the stone work of John Quickel, Michael's son, wrote:
žMichael Quickel  came to America from Germany and landed in Philadelphia on July 25, 1736 (sic)› Michael settled in the Conestoga Valley in Lancaster County, remained until 1763, at which time he purchased 200 acres of land in what is now Conewago Township, just east of Dover. In 1770, Michael Quickel gave more than 2 acres to the Lutheran and Reformed church which sat at the southwest corner of his original 200 acres.› This church became known as QuickelŪs Church.› A well-respected man in the community, Michael helped teach the local children at QuickelŪs Church.› In 1776, as a Captain, Michael led a group of volunteer soldiers to Philadelphia. ž8(From Barry RauhauserŪs discussion of his son JohannŪs stonecarving in publication noted on Johann QuickelŪs own entry). ž In August of 1776, Michael led a group of volunteer farmers turned infantry into Philadelphia.› According to reports from members of the Baer and Becker families, John Quickel, 14 years old, traveled with his father and his group of fighters but stayed behind at a relativeŪs house in Lancaster while the men continued onward.(2)›› Michael Quickel continued his support of America throughout his life when in 1781 his signature is found under an Oath of Misdemeanor when James Brittain was found guilty of speaking Traitorously, all of which rings familiar to the Committees of Observation and Inspection which would have been active at the time. ž8
 
 

"At›the›Courthouse›of›Philadia,›October›19th,›1736.›
Thirty seven Foreigners, from the Palatinate, who, with their Families, making in all one hundred and ten persons, were imported here in the Brigantine John, of Perth Amboy, George Frazer, Master, from Rotterdam, but last from Dover, as by Clearance thence, were this day qualified as usual." From the Minutes of the Provincial Council, printed in Colonial Records, Vol. IV, p. 99f. This is the last entry in the minutes of the Provincial Council regarding immigrants.
[List 43 C] At the Courthouse of Philadia Octobr 19th 1736. Present Clement Plumstead, Esqr Mayor of the City of Philadia, Thomas Laurence, Esqr, Ralph Asheton, Esqr.
The Palatines whose Names are underwritten imported in the Brigt John, George Fraiser, Master from Rotterdam, but last from Dover, did this day take & subscribe the Oaths to the Government.
››Abraham›Beer›
››Petter›Quattelbaum›
››Johan›(X)›Frantz›
››Johann›Georg›Wicklein›
››Johann›Ludwig›Seib›
››Ludwig›Steadler›von›Stea[tler]›
››Johan›Philippus›Quickel›
››Johanes›(O)›Seger›
››Johan›Peter›Pritz›
››Johan›Michel›(O)›Quickel›
››Jacob›(X)›Keller›
››Franciscus›Josephus›Hornig›
››Johann›Caspar›Schmidt›
››Casper›Struwel›
››Casper›Lambert›
››George›(O)›Keck›
››Paulus›Andoni›
››Friedrich›Bleibtreu›
››Johannes›Geier›
››Johan›Adam›Rausch›
››Johann›Jost›Mohr› [unverified by me, but some purport this man as husband to the three Quickel Brothers sister Dorothea]
››Johan›Georg›(+)›Quickel›
››Johannes›Schler›
››Johan›Christoffel›Heininger›
››Peter›Kohl›
››Daniel›Schroth›
››Johan›Henrich›Schmidt›
››Jacob›(X)›Blyger›
››Abraham›Dumbald›
››Ernst›Friderich›Dumbald›
››Peter›Haas›
››Johannes›Herr›
››Diebolt›Veit›
››Ditrich›(O)›Sch?tz›
››Nicklas›(+)›Stube›
››Piter›(O)›de›Wue›
››Godfrid›Eberhard›
 

ž notes on wills from  Dover Twp., York Co., PA for Michael and Barbara.  Michaels was proved July 29, 1788.  His wife is Barbara and his
children are John, Michael, Barbara m. ? Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Krider, Maria m Conrad Ensminger, Catherine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.  Also step son and daughter Henry Bohmer and Mary m. Phillip Miller.9
 

žName: John Michael Hahn
  Parent: Michael Hahn
  Location: Conestoga
  Birth Date: 31 Jan 1741
  Baptism Date: 27 Mar 1741
  Sponsor: John Michael QuickelÓ 5
 
 

___________
Quiggle thread Rootweb: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/QUIGGLE/1999-10/0939155128
I have notes on wills from  Dover Twp., York Co., PA for Michael and
Barbara.  Michaels was proved July 29, 1788.  His wife is Barbara and his
children are John, Michael, Barbara m. ? Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael
Krider, Maria m Conrad Ensminger, Catherine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and
Baltzer.  Also step son and daughter Henry Bohmer and Mary m. Phillip
Miller.

Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802.  Also of Dover Twp., she lists the following children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Phillip Miller,
John and Balthasser.  Grandchildren are John and Ann ( C'rn of John) and Barbara Miller (C of Barbara).
 
 


The three brothers Quickel are found in the census index of 1736 in Philadelphia
Quickel, Joh. Michael

State:  PA
County:  Philadelphia Co.
Location:  Philadelphia
Census/Enumeration year:  1736


Quickel, Johan Georg

State:  PA
County:  Philadelphia Co.
Location:  Philadelphia
Census/Enumeration year:  1736


Quickel, Johan Philip

State:  PA
County:  Philadelphia Co.
Location:  Philadelphia
Census/Enumeration year:  1736
                                            State:  PA
                                            County:  Philadelphia Co.
                                            Location:  Philadelphia
                                            Census/Enumeration year:  1736

Also in Philadelphia 4 years previous to the brothers and   of unknown [possible] relations  is
Quickelin, Maria

State:  PA
County:  Philadelphia Co.
Location:  Philadelphia
Census/Enumeration year:  1732


Quickell, Georg

State:  PA
County:  Philadelphia Co.
Location:  Philadelphia
Census/Enumeration year:  1732
from Colonial America, 1607-1789 Census Index  . žThe census index data contained in this data set was acquired from MicroQuix, Inc. and Camron, Inc. It consists    of data compiled by AISI, Inc. Genealogy.com, as a publisher, is not responsible for the original mistakes contained in AISI data, although (as noted above) many of these have been corrected.Ó

Children of Michael Quickel and 2nd wife Barbara [Widow Bauer] [Widow Bohmer]


1.1 Johannes** žJohnÓ QUICKEL16,17,18,19
ůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůů
Birth: 9 Jun 176220,21,22
Death: 13 Feb 1831, (East) Manchester Twp, York, Penna20,21,23
Burial: Quickel's Church, York County, PA.
Bapt: Strayer's (Salem) Lutheran Church Lancastar County, Penna
Alias: John in fatherŪs will.//Quickle is sometimes Quikel in the records of QuickelsŪ church7

Johannes Quickel moonlighted as a stonecarver, and his work is identifiable, beautiful, and known. For much of this information, in fact the majority, I am indebted to the work of Barry Rauhauser in his study of the Quickel family and the stone work of John Quickel.  Please access his site for images of JohnŪs work and more detail regarding him, and to do credit to the source of the info, again Barry Rauhauser. http://members.nbci.com/BRRauhauser/sp99.htm

Will Abstract Michael Quickel:
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.7

John Quickel was žborn in 1762 and baptized at StrayerŪs Church on› July 27, 1763.› Michael Quickel willed to his son the 200 acres of land which he owned, (the son)  John did not accept the conditions of his fatherŪs will and purchased 75 acres to the east of his fatherŪs land in 1787....adjacent to his fatherŪs farm and the church.... (At the age of 14 and) in 1776 he marched part of the way with his father with farmerŪs turned infantry.  ž In August of 1776, Michael (johnŪs father) led a group of volunteer farmers turned infantry into Philadelphia.› According to reports from members of the Baer and Becker families, John Quickel, 14 years old, traveled with his father and his group of fighters but stayed behind at a relativeŪs house in Lancaster while the men continued onward. .....Both of these documents are found at the Historical Society of York.› Though crudely done, merely photocopied notes, both contained small tales passed along of Michael QuickelŪs volunteer march which places John Quickel at the scene for at least part of the march to Philadelphia. ž8In 1808 John Quickel is commissioned as Justice of the Peace for Manchester Township....John Quickel never appears in any of the tax records as a stonecutter, or weaver, or mason, or anything that one would normally connect with gravestone carving.› John Quickel is usually found as žEsquireÓ in the tax records due to his 12 year career as a Justice of the Peace.› However, John Quickel leaves behind some record suggesting that he was a stone carver. ... Being a Justice of the Peace, along with many positions of life at the time (like gravestone carving) were often side-jobs at best.› Many early immigrants were occupying several stations in life at one time.› In JohnŪs case it is difficult to determine which he considered to be his main occupation, though the census records of the day show him as esquire, not as farmer or stone cutter. The notebook which John Quickel used at the time is the same notebook his father used to record the names and allowances of his fellow volunteers in his march of 1776 and still exists at the Historical Society of York.› It reveals the day to day workings of John from 1810 until the book is filled in 1814.› With the exception of the parts written by his father, it is entirely in cursive English.(3) .... Though much of the cases recorded by John are hum-drum, day-to-day squabbles over debts and labor disputes, there are the occasional cases which sound more like a television sit-com:
› Before me the subscriber one of the justices of the peace in and for the› county of York, personally came Benjamin Edward of the township of Manchester› in the said county, who upon his solemn affirmation according to Law, said, that› on this day being the eleventh Day of March at Mr. John Shiers Innkeeper in› Manchester township foresaid, Thomas Bond of the same township, made an› assauld up on this affirmant and then and there did violently beat and abuse him› upon the head with an Iron handle of a stofe scraper until the blood ran from his› head and demnd his black soul and that he would shood him.
  This appears to be nothing more than the 1811 version of a bar fight.› The day itself must have been a pretty violent one, however, as Christina Borke of Newberry would report to John Quickel, Esq. three days later, on March 14th that:
› Catharina King and husband George did follow this affirmant to the› schoolhouse, and then and there did violently scold and abuse her, and calt her› all the bad names and bat words that could be mentioned and lifted up his fist and› that she is afeard of her live.
 In fact, life as a Justice of the Peace was all but hum-drum.› There are a few other cases over the four years, reported directly to John Quickel, Esq., of various žviolentÓ things occurring žthen and thereÓ which usually consisted of somebody hitting somebody else over the head with something.› With all of this head hitting going on, the association of Justice of the Peace and gravestone carver may have been a frugal agreement.
›In a labor dispute dated May 30, 1810, the notebook also gives us an idea of how sandstone was gathered and quarried in the earliest days of settlement:
› Mr. Bond hath hiert there wagon and fore horses for four dollars per day› and the said the wold hall as big a lods as Smeiser had that time when the came› there for do make the bargin, and one of them was to stay in the woods and biig› ang gether and quarry stones and help to lod the wagon and he was to have three› quarter dollars per day for doing that and Mr. Bond and the agreed the should› come on Monday morning...

›Though it is difficult to tell by the awkward language and the phonetic spellings, the basics are clear: sandstone was probably žgatheredÓ just as much as it was quarried at this early time in the new settlement, and was as much of an attempt at clearing the land as much as it was a desire to earn a profit from the stone.› Certainly this changes over time and quarries, particularly on your own farmland, were established.
›This passage from 1810, when compared to passages from later dates, also illustrates clearly John QuickelŪs increasing grasp of the English language.› Slowly, over the three years John keeps records in the notebook, his grammar and spelling improve.
›What this notebook doesnŪt tell us, unfortunately, is anything about John Quickel, the German stone-cutter.› As per the government, which ordered all legal documents to be in English, JohnŪs first language is only revealed by the phonetic spellings which occur in the earliest years of his work as a Justice.› It does not offer us, nor have I found anywhere, a hint as to how John Quickel received an education or his affection for the law.› Nor does it contain any mention of anything at all personal to John, save for a small scrap of paper between the pages, a receipt from John Rutt which reads:
› RecŪd, April 8th, 1825 from John Quickel gaurtian for Rebecca Frey for› one table & two chairs the sum of one dollar eight one cent.
 Though the notebook is filled by 1814, John Quickel continues his post at Justice of the Peace until 1820.› In 1824 he builds his first stone house on his lot of land.› This house, which still stands, nearly propped up by a major four-lane highway, is a two story sandstone house and sandstone and wood barn about 1/2 mile north-east of the church(Fig 5).› On the southern gable of the barn is a datestone which imitates his gravestones with a worn-down twelve point sun. On the western gable of this house is a another wonderful display of QuickelŪs carving ability.› Under two suns and a trio of tulips springing out of a vase appears the phrase, both in German and English, žBuilt by John Quickel and his wife Elizabeth - 1824.Ó (Fig. 6) ž8

Regarding father MichaelŪs and mother BarbaraŪs  will: žMichaels was proved July 29, 1788.  His wife is Barbara and his
children are ....John...and (see fatherŪs entry for additional info)
Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802.  Also of Dover Twp., she lists the following children:  ....John ....Ó9 (see motherŪsŪs entry for additional info)
In Church Records: Selected Areas of PA 1600s-1800s, York County, Vol 3, Staryer's (Salem) Lutheran Church he is present as : Johanes Qwickel of Michael and Barbara Qwickel born June 9 1762, Baptized.
There is some disagreement regarding the first two children of Maria Elizabeth and Johannes Quickel.  Some say that the second son's name was simply John. 19,24
 

žPennsylvania-Dutch folk art is often identified by its bold lines, its use of primary colors, and the repetition of motifs such as hearts,tulips, geometric suns, and trees-of-life. The 19th century graveyards of rural York County, Pennsylvania with their carved tulips and hearts and fraktur lettering give testament to the overwhelming infiltration of the folk-art behind the culture. Yet behind all of this apparent unity within the community and its folk art lies the individual artisan. Pennsylvania - Dutch folk art is more than just the recreation of a remembered culture from the artisans Palatinate past. The folk art motifs and images which are found carved into the sandstone markers of the early nineteenth century were a new creation based upon the craftsmens perception of the amalgamated culture in the Americas and his place within this culture. As an example, Johannes Quickel moonlighted as a gravestone carver in York County from 1789 until his death in 1831.A second-generation craftsman whose family originally settled in Lancaster county but moved west as more land became available,John Quickel was separated both from the Palatinate culture his parents left behind, but also from many of the original craftsmen which the earlier settlements in America would have produced. In a close examination of John Quickels life and the gravestone carvings he created, a subtle and silent dialogue emerges between the artists personal aesthetics, the immediate ethnic culture around  him, and the larger, Anglo-American culture of the new nation.Ó The Gazette
From the Gazette: Newsletter of the Mid-Atlantic Popular / American Culture Association December 1999 / January 2000 and citing Barry Rauhauser: "How the Craftsman Interprets Culture: The Pennsylvanian German Gravestones of Johannes Quickel" viewable at http://www.sunynassau.edu/users/ash2/december99.html  An Extensive excerpt from Barry Rauhauser is located below.

Barry R Rauhauser has done extensive study of gravestone carving in German Penna tradition and has detailed the work of John Quickel. The information below is lifted from his informative, detailed site at: http://members.nbci.com/BRRauhauser/spring98.htm  In the entire work he looks at the evolution of carving of stones, and the emergence of a strong Germanic tradition with Fractur writing, using Johann QuickelŪs work as the primary example of that art. The photos which accompany the text are viewable in the multimedia window, likewise, credit for them is due again to Barry Rauhauser.  The excerpt begins after a discussion of James KellyŪs work.
›››ÓThe stones of John Quickel (Photos #4, #5) appear in great contrast alongside the stones of James Kelly.› KellyŪs stones are white marble, plain, and though in German, are still carved in a plain typeface.› QuickelŪs stones are brown sandstone with hearts and tulips or suns and always fraktur lettering. John QuickelŪs father, Michael Quickel, came to America from Germany and landed in Philadelphia on July 25, 1736.› Michael settled in the Conestoga Valley in Lancaster County, remained until 1763, at which time he purchased 200 acres of land in what is now Conewago Township, just east of Dover. In 1770, Michael Quickel gave more than 2 acres to the Lutheran and Reformed church which sat at the southwest corner of his original 200 acres.› This church became known as QuickelŪs Church.› A well-respected man in the community, Michael helped teach the local children at QuickelŪs Church.› In 1776, as a Captain, Michael led a group of volunteer soldiers to Philadelphia.
›››ÓJohn Quickel, his son, was born in 1762 and baptized at StrayerŪs Church on› July 27, 1763.› Michael Quickel willed to his son the 200 acres of land which he owned.› John did not accept the conditions of his fatherŪs will and purchased 75 acres to the east of his fatherŪs land in 1787.  John was probably an educated man, though IŪve found no record of his education.
›  ÓIn the cemetery that sits across the road from QuickelŪs Church are many stones matching the John Quickel stones found at StrayerŪs church.› As a cross check, I sampled a variety of the sandstone gravemarkers from this yard and searched for the matching estate records of the interred. (Table 2)› The full list of all stones sampled can be seen in Data Table 1, in the back, and are distinguished by a Q in the žCem.Ó column  (Editors note: I included the authorŪs tables below and at the end of the text)
    žLike James Kelly, John Quickel also appears to have a long and varied carving career.› The stones in the Quickel yard are much more varied than one would conclude by› examining the few stones located at the StrayerŪs Church cemetery.› John QuickelŪs carving must have begun about the time of his fatherŪs death  and continued until his own death in 1831.
›››ÓThe sampling of stones from the Quickel yard shows the variety which John Quickel carved.› Beginning with the simple, all capital-lettered, plain type, fieldstone which he carved for his father, John Quickel then moves into a period of small, undecorated, quarried sandstone markers, and then into his later years with the sun, tulips, hearts and fraktur lettering.› Large variations can also be noticed within each of the three main styles. (Photos #6, #7, #8)
›››ÓOddly enough, John Quickel never appears in any of the tax records as a stonecutter, or weaver, or mason, or anything that one would normally connect with gravestone carving.› John Quickel is usually found as žEsquireÓ in the tax records due to his 12 year career as a Justice of the Peace.› However, John Quickel leaves behind some record suggesting that he was a stone carver.
Table 3:› from John QuickelŪs Inventory Appraisal
to two Stone Jocks› .75
to a books and stone cutting tools› .75
to Hammer, anvill, Tom Hock, pincher, chisel & stone wedges .75
to a lot of Himm & prayer books 2.50›
    žThis list of tools (Table 3) certainly points to John Quickel as being able to carve some form of stone, but it is house that points to the gravestones.› John QuickelŪs stone house, built in 1824, still stands on Canal Road in East Manchester Township, only a half mile east of QuickelŪs Church.› There is a date stone on the western gable of QuickelŪs house (Photo #9) which uses a similar tulip motif as that found on many of the stones in both the Quickel and Strayer cemeteries.› Though the datestone on the house uses a vase rather than a heart, the suns alongside the tulips and the shapes of the tulips match the carvings on the gravestones.› The English translation on the datestone was probably done by John Quickel.› Being a Justice of the Peace meant writing many documents in English.› After examining the case records from QuickelŪs term as Justice of the Peace, I can definitely state that the man was fluent in English. #4››› There is also a datestone on the barn using the sun motif.
   žIn his administration account, John QuickelŪs estate pays his son George Quickel for one tombstone.(Fig. 10)› This stone rests in the QuickelŪs Church cemetery; a sun motif, brown sandstone with fraktur lettering.›› There is also a stone in the StrayerŪs yard which is connected by an administration account to George Quickel.› George QuickelŪs vendue list also includes two žgrave stonesÓ which are sold to Michael and Christian Quickel.(Fig. 11)› Obviously, George is continuing his fatherŪs work, but not with the same variety or longevity.› Many of the fraktur-lettered stones in the Quickel yard which appear after 1831 are void of symbols and only retain their brown color and fraktur lettering as a match to John QuickelŪs.› This lack of variety on GeorgeŪs part may have been due to his own lack of longevity.› George dies in 1845, at the age of 46, leaving behind several children.› The oldest child would have only been 14 at the time.› The Quickel carving history ends with George.
›    žThe discussion of the Quickel carvers canŪt be concluded without also noting the portions of the written record which do not point to a Quickel as the carver.› In my opinion, these are momentarily unexplainable anomalies to an otherwise perfect case for the Quickels as carvers.› However, the written record does point wherever it will.
›››ÓOne of the problems with the QuickelŪs case is found on the stone of Barbara Spahr, dated 1823, and found at StrayerŪs Church (Photo #11). This stone could have been produced within John QuickelŪs lifetime and the stone carries with it all the standard Quickel characteristics.› However, no probate record for Barbara Spahr can be found since she would have died before her husband, George Spahr.› In the probate records of George Spahr, there are two žgreave stonesÓ mentioned, his own and his wifeŪs. (Fig. 12)› The stone for himself is purchased from George Quickel.› George Spahr dies in 1830, and given George QuickelŪs ability to copy his fatherŪs work and his fatherŪs age at the time, there is little doubt that this stone was carved by George Quickel.
  ž But George SpahrŪs estate also pays Melchoir Benedick for a stone for žBarbary SpahrÓ, indicating his wife.› This would indicate a stone that is otherwise identical to the works of John Quickel.(Photo #11)› The explanation may be lost with time.› George Spahr may have been repaying Benedick for a stone that had previously been carved by John and purchased by Benedick.
›››ÓAnother problem lies in the stones at QuickelŪs Church which contain QuickelŪs sun motif carved into marble. (Photo #12)› Only one administration account has been located for these stones.› This single account indicates that James Kelly was paid for the stone.› Here again, at the moment, the story is lost.› Kelly could have copied the work of Quickel with enough skill.› He could have even used some of the same stencils.› Better still, John Quickel may have carved the stone for Kelly.› None of these possibilities should otherwise detract from the evidence which supports John and George Quickel as the carvers of many of the gravestones in the area› After John Quickel dies, and especially after George Quickel dies, the use of sandstone, fraktur lettering, and Germanic folk-motifs drops rapidly from the faces of the gravestones.› The final two carvers, for which I have found more than one mention in the probate records, are Michael Christ and John Minter.› Both appear to be marble carvers  who use more dominant, widespread cultural symbols (fans or willow and urns) or no symbols at all.› Both have something greater in common, however, and that is their locations to the west of the Dover area.
›››ÓMichael Christ does not leave much information behind.› The Pennsylvania census for 1800 indicates a Michael Christ living in Paradise Township to the west of Dover and the 1820 census shows a Michael Christ residing in Menallen Township in Adams County.› The tax records of 1800 for Paradise Township show a Michael Christ as a small land owner.› By 1804, Michael Quickel is listed as a weaver.› The connection of weaver and gravestone maker› is not uncommon and occurs with John Frysinger, mentioned only one time in an estate record from 1809, who also is listed as a weaver in the tax records.
›   žJohn Minter is absent from many of the York County records.› Like Christ, he ended up residing in the Adams County area.› The Pennsylvania Census of 1820 lists a John Minter in Montgomery County and in 1840 lists John Minter in Franklin Township in Adams County.› BoydŪs Business Directory of 1860 lists John Minter as a marble worker in Hanover with a shop at the corner of Carlisle and Chestnut. #5››› Both MinterŪs and ChristŪs stones must have been brought in from much greater distances to the west.› When George Quickel dies, his estate purchases a stone from Minter.
››ÓWhich comes first?› The carver or the culture?› If I would have answered that question last semester I would have chosen culture.› I assumed that the individual on the deathbed would have been controlling the characteristics of the stones prior to 1850. Therefore, the carver appeared to me as a servant to the regional culture and to the individual and was somehow anonymous both in signature and influence.
››Ó Just as Aries had also discovered, after examining many of the available wills, I found no demands placed on the executors other than a žburial in a Christian-like mannerÓ and the occasional› žbefitting social gracesÓ and always žat the discretion of the executors.Ó #6››› If the individual did select a style of stone, it is not found in their wills, and was probably done so informally.› One of the carvers, John Quickel, changes his style dramatically over the years and from stone to stone.› This demonstrates that, to John Quickel at least, there was individuality in the carving of a stone.› Though the individuality and symbols may have been influenced by culture, there are still elements of the carvings which remained independent of any dominant culture.
››ÓBut the characteristics of the tombstones are not controlled solely by the time periodŪs regional culture of death or the carverŪs artistic interpretations.› Economy also would have controlled these characteristics.› The gravestones are influenced by the availability of material and a carverŪs talent.› The culture, the carver, and the economy, mesh into a single tangible unit; the gravestone.› Without examining the written record, as I did last semester, I could only guess at the economy, and only imagine the carvers behind the stones.› This left two broad areas of darkness without any light switches. .....
    žThe people at StrayerŪs were not paying more money to have sandstone, but they were paying more money to maintain their culture through the German folk art and fraktur lettering.› The best example of this can be seen with the Quickel/Kelly marble stones which appear at the QuickelŪs Church cemetery.› The one available administration account for a marker of this type from 1815 gives a price of $43.25.› This means it cost three times as much to have both marble and the Germanic cultural elements in the same stone.
›››ÓThe folk art's relevance to the German culture is easy enough to visually deduce.› Even last semester, I knew that the folk art was a distinctly German element in the stones of carvers such as John Quickel.› The importance of fraktur lettering as a German cultural element can only be understood when one looks at a copy of YorkŪs German Gazette from the time period. › Both John QuickelŪs and George SpahrŪs obituaries were printed in the German Gazette.› However, the papers from these dates are no longer extant. ››› After seeing copies of the German Gazette, printed in a fraktur lettering similar to John QuickelŪs, I now view the lettering not as decoration but as a symbol of Germanic culture.
›››ÓThere was much more tension between the German immigrants and the dominant Anglican culture of America than I had perceived.› The first marker in StrayerŪs cemetery that uses fraktur lettering is dated 1808.› Before this, the carvers were probably skilled enough to carve in fraktur, yet it does not appear.› Mounting tension between the cultures, though possibly unconscious and peaceful, may have caused this increase in the use of fraktur lettering.› Originally, I viewed the fraktur-lettered stones as the ždirect-from-GermanyÓ culture; I viewed their disappearance as assimilation without a struggle.› I now believe that this fraktur lettering was a reaction to the assimilation.
›››ÓThis cultural tension can best be seen in John QuickelŪs stones. Though most of the fraktur-lettered markers are those carved by John Quickel, he himself undergoes a change in lettering styles.› By examining the estate records and markers of QuickelŪs Church, IŪve found that John Quickel does not begin to carve in fraktur until about 1802.› Many of his earlier stones are still beautifully carved, but are in žstandardÓ capital letters. John Quickel may have been copying the fraktur from an old family bible, or he may have been copying from issues of YorkŪs German Gazette.› Either way, he used the fraktur lettering not out of fashion, but out of an effort to maintain a culture.› John QuickelŪs use of fraktur and folk art motifs increased as the years passed and as the assimilation of the German culture continued.
››ÓJohn Quickel demonstrates the importance of the carver.› As the popular carver of what I now view as žstubbornly German" markers, John Quickel becomes not just a carver, but a stronghold of German culture.› When John Quickel died in 1831, a small segment of the German immigrant culture died with him.› Even in the QuickelŪs Church cemetery, there are few, if any, folk art motifs after 1831.› The fraktur-lettered stones which appear after this date are carved by George Quickel and others who are mimicking the style of John Quickel, yet they are no match for the dominant culture or the rapidly assimilating German culture.
›››ÓThis also demonstrates the importance of generational changes occurring in a culture.› Last semester, I found a big generational culture leap due to the use of English in the schools in Dover.› Within ten years, the German language disappears from the markers at StrayerŪs cemetery.› With John and George Quickel, we see the same thing on a micro-level.› In this case, the disappearance of an important cultural element, the German folk-art on tombstones, occurs in the exhale of a breath.
›››ÓAnother overlooked aspect in last semesterŪs study was the influence of canals.› In an interview with the present owner of the Quickel house, Paul Fuller, I accidentally discovered this influence on the Dover area.› Mr. Fuller stated that a canal was planned along the Conewago in the early 1800Ūs.› The investors of this canal had shipped in large quantities of sandstone into the area, but had gone out of business before anything was ever built.› According to Fuller, these stones were then used by many of the local residents to build houses and barns.› To Mr. Fuller, this explained the variegated coloring on many of the areaŪs old stone houses.›
›››ÓIŪve found absolutely nothing concrete to verify this story.› It may be nothing more than rural myth.› The area itself is broad enough to explain some of the variation of color of sandstone.› However, IŪve found no evidence which denies his claim.› In fact, according to William Shank, in The Amazing Pennsylvania Canals, many upstart companies were trying to build side canals which led into the Susquehanna, but had run out of money. The Conewago streams, which ironically parallel Canal Road next to the Quickel house, would have been a perfect site for a canal since they would have led into the Conewago Falls Canal along the Susquehanna.
›››ÓThe people of the Dover area must have been acquainted with the canal systems in the Susquehanna.› Balzer Hamme, one of the men with a Quickel stone in StrayerŪs cemetery, was a trade merchant who trafficked goods between Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Baltimore.›› Hamme was probably using the Susquehanna and its canals to take goods to Baltimore. The overall influence of the canals before railways can also be seen from an advertisement by Byrnes and Co. in the Gazette in Fig. 2.
›››ÓThe canals may not explain the colors of the sandstone in Dover, but it does explain the Minter stones, which come from Hanover, and the Christ stones, which also came from western areas.› Before railway, east to west trade routes would have been established to take advantage of these canals and the Susquehanna River.› Even though railway was established by the time of MinterŪs appearance, the roadways and trade patterns had already been established, making Hanover as likely a place to obtain a tombstone as York.› Depending on the availability of economically appropriate carvers in each area, Hanover may have been a better choice.› Growing up with the availability of north to south Interstate Highways, the prevalence of east to west trade in the nineteenth century never even occurred to me.
› ž  Now that IŪve mentioned many of the things that I misconstrued by only examining the material record last semester, let me mention one thing I got right.› As I said last semester, I donŪt agree with Barba about much of the symbolism which he suggests.› The only symbolic importance I may have seen was that of the drooping tulip branches. #11››› However, after seeing the folk art datestone on the Quickel house, I think even this is a bit of a stretch.› The folk art stems from the home and the family and is symbolic of these.› After viewing the stones at the Quickel cemetery, I now see the sun motif as an economical German cultural statement, rather than a transitional folk art motif.› The real importance with the folk art, I believe now, is as its symbol of a German culture to a people who found their culture under stress. ž

The pictures accompanying John QuickelŪs entry here are from this same website, from which the text in entirity was taken.

Table 1:› Possible Carvers from the Probate Records
Year Carver Materia Motif Price
1795 Horn, Frederick 2 7 5..4..0
1806 Horn, Frederick 2 7 6..14..11
1809 Frysinger, John 4 4 3..15..0
1809 Smith, Henry 2 7 3..18..9
1813 Kelly, James 2 7 12.72
1815 Kelly, James 2 7 16.75
1819 Kelly, James 2 7 19.00
1819 Kelly, James 2 7 19.48
1820 Kelly, James 2 7 18.11
1822› Quickel, John 4 9› 9.00
1825 Kelly, James 2 7 19.80
1826 Quickel, John 4 4 26.00
1828 Quickel, John 4 9 24.00
1830 Quickel, George 4 9 11.50
1833 Christ, W. or M. 2 10 18.00
1837 Christ, Michael 4 10 17.00

Table 2: Matching John Quickel records at QuickelŪs Church
Date Interred Carver Material Motif Price Paid
1787› Quickel, Michael Quickel, John 4 caps 1..10..0
1804 Finck, Heinrich Quickel, John 4 4 1..17..6
1804 Cron, Johann Phillip Quickel, John 4 4 2..5..0
1806 Hoffman, Johann Phillip Quickel, John 6 4 6..15..0 for 2
1816 Benedick, George Quickel, John 4 4 21.84
1818 Miller, George Quickel, John 4 4 26.42
1823 Metzger, Willhelm Quickel, John 4 caps 58.25 for 3
1823 Wilt, John Quickel, John 4 4 16.25›

Spouse: Elizabeth** [Elisabetha] BRENNEMAN25,19,21,20
Birth: 12 Jun 1763, žof Conestoga, Lancaster, PennsylvaniaÓ26,20,3
Death: May 1830, York County, Penna Hemmorhage After Carrying A Bucket Of Water26,20
Father: Christian** BRENNEMAN (1735-1771)
Mother: Anna** HERR (~1746-)
Marr: 1783, Lancaster, Penna3

Children: John (Died as Infant) (1783-1784)
 John Henry žjohnÓ [Johannes] (1785-1855)
 Elizabeth (1787-1890)
 Susanna (1790-1873)
 Anna Barbara žAnneÓ žBarbaraÓ (1792-1876)
 Michael (1794-1846)
 Jacob (1797-)
 George [Georg] (1799-1845)
 Christian (twin) (Twin) (1802-1882)
 Anna (twin)** žAnnieÓ (Twin) (1802-1882)
 Catharine (1805-1848)
 Henry (1807-1897)

1.2 Balthasar žBaltzerÓ QUICKEL27,28,29,30
ůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůů
Birth: 1765, York County, Penna22
Death: 181822
Alias: Balthasser in motherŪs will, Baltzer in fatherŪs31,7

Regarding father MichaelŪs and mother BarbaraŪs  will: žMichaels was proved July 29, 1788.  His wife is Barbara and his
children are John, Michael, Barbara m. ? Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Krider, Maria m Conrad Ensminger, Catherine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802.  Also of Dover Twp., she lists the following children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Phillip Miller, John and Balthasser.  Grandchildren are John and Ann ( C'rn of John) and Barbara Miller (C of Barbara).Ó9

Will Abstract Michael Quickel:
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.7

Spouse: Catharine [Catharina FINCK] FINK32,33
Birth: 1770, York, Pa.22

Children: Jacob (1788-)
 Michael (1789-)

1.3 Anna [Anna Barbara] QUICKEL34,35,22,36
ůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůůů
Birth: 1767, York County, PA37
Death: 182238
Alias: Anna Barbara Quickle SPonsor of brother JohnŪs daughter, žanna BarbaraÓ Quickel in 1792

Regarding father MichaelŪs and mother BarbaraŪs  will: žMichaels was proved July 29, 1788.  His wife is Barbara and his
children are John, Michael, Barbara m. ? Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Krider, Maria m Conrad Ensminger, Catherine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer. Barbara's will was proved June 29, 1802.  Also of Dover Twp., she lists the following children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Phillip Miller, John and Balthasser.  Grandchildren are John and Ann ( C'rn of John) and Barbara Miller (C of Barbara).Ó9
____________
Will Abstract Michael Quickel:
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.7

_____________________________
Children of Anna and ConradŪs  from source22  (more info available there)
Lydia Frey
           Elisabetha Frey
                         Clarissa? Frey
                                      Anna Barbara Frey
                                                      Johannes Frey
                                                                   Daniel Frey
                                                                             Hannah Frey
                                                                                         Catherine Frey
                                                                                                      George Frey
                                                                                                                 Margaret Frey

Spouse: Conrad FR(E)Y9,39,40,22
Birth: 10 Apr 1769, York Co., PA.40
Death: 28 Feb 1811, York Co., PA.40
Father: George FRY (-<1804)
Mother: Elizabeth HECKLER (~1737-)
Marr: aft May 1792, [she was sponsor to her brotherŪs neice as Anna Barbara Quickle] child also Anna Barbara Quickle

Children: Lydia
 Elisabetha
 Clarissa
 Anna Barbara
 Johannes
 Daniel
 Hannah
 Catharine
 George
 Margaret
 
 

Sources

1. Will abstract, Michael Quickel at rootsweb
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.
2. marriage record  John Michael found in  Early Lutheran Baptisms and Marriages in Southeastern Pennsylvania Philadelphia: n.p., 1896, Largely kept by Rev John Casper Stoever. Source states:  žThis database is a collection of Lutheran Church baptism and marriage records from southeastern Pennsylvania between 1730 and 1779. The records were kept largely by Rev. John Casper Stoever.Ó AC Library
3. Laura Morrison, žOn line Web pages: my ancestors. Appears to be sourced, but sources are not available on linking to them , large and comprehensive, frequently sited by others researching these lines,Ó
4. žTom & Donna's Home Page,Ó viewed 040101, , largely sourced to Laura above.
5. Early Lutheran Baptisms and Marriages in Southeastern Pennsylvania Philadelphia: n.p., 1896, Largely kept by Rev John Casper Stoever
žThis database is a collection of Lutheran Church baptism and marriage records from southeastern Pennsylvania between 1730 and 1779. The records were kept largely by Rev. John Casper Stoever.Ó AC Library
6. Church Records: Adams, Berks & Lancaster Counties, Pennsylvania 1729-1881 . Part of Genforum Library Paid Subscription.

8. Barry Rauhauser, žThe Individual Behind the Art,Ó ›Cites Quickel, David.› "The Quickel History" › York:› York Historical Society, 1961.› Except where noted many of the information regarding the history of the Quickel comes from this source
9. žRootsweb-Quiggle-L Thread
10.  barbara, no surname.
Will abstract, Michael Quickel. See Source 1

11., Barbara SNAVELY. from  žTom & Donna's Home Page,Ó viewed 040101,
12. Barbara BOHNER or Barbara Bohner [Bauer] SNAVLE. from Laura Morrison, žOn line Web pages: my ancestors. Appears to be sourced, but sources are not available on linking to them , large and comprehensive, frequently sited by others researching these lines,Ó
13. York Co., Penna and 18 april 1802. žTom & Donna's Home Page,Ó viewed 040101,
14. žRootsweb-Quiggle-L Thread.Ó  Re will: žALso Of DoverÓ
15. . žMichael Quickel, widower, m. Barbara Bauer, widowÓ.  From Church Records: Adams, Berks & Lancaster Counties, Pennsylvania 1729-1881 . Part of Genforum Library Paid Subscription
16. son John.
Will abstract, Michael Quickel. See Source 1
17. son John. from
Barbara , wife of Michael Quickel,  her Will abstract:
QUICKEL, Barbara.  Dover Township.
August 5, 1795    June 29, 1802
Executor:  John Quickel.
Children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Philip Miller, John, and Balthasser.
Grandchildren:  John and Ann (children of John), and Barbara Miller (child of Barbara).
18. žOld Family Bible (Keller Family Bible),Ó Info provided to D M Swope by Amy Swope Wing from source cited, in the hands of Mrs Keller of York ca 1930s
19. Albert H. Gerberich, Brenneman History, The, Copyright 1938, reprinted 1988 By Selby Publ., Selby Publishing and Printing 3405 Zartman Rd, Kokomo, Indiana 46902, page 263. cited by source Barbara Christie <barbgeni@ix.netcom.com> Via Rootsweb World Connect Tree Entry,,
20. Web Pages entitled Ancestors of Richard Alan Lebo, žThe BRENNEMAN Line,Ócited to   Mary Sue Branaman  SandiWon@aol.com     Brent Rhodes blrodes@shentel.net.
21. žOld Family Bible (Keller Family Bible),Ó Info provided to D M Swope by Amy Swope Wing from source cited, in the hands of Mrs Keller of York ca 1930s
22. Laura Morrison, Sources apparant but link doesnŪt work, žQuickel Descendants
23. Ibid. east Manchester Twp.
24. Barbara Bucknam Christie, ž online GEDcom/Homepage,Ó http://worldconnect.genealogy.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=barbgeni&id=I04014, 091000, Barbgeni@ix.netcom.com, http://www.familytreemaker.com/users/c/h/r/Barbara-E-Christie/, citing second source.
25. [Elisabetha Quickel] mother to Anna Barbara. from
York County, Pennsylvania, 1765-1803: Quickel's (Zion) Lutheran and Reformed Church.  Lineages, Inc., comp. [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000. Records transcribed from Family History Library copies of church records for this locality. For more information, see Family History Library Catalog (FHLC) #0020346.žLocated in Conewago Township in York County, Pennsylvania, Quickel's Church, also called Zion's Church, was organized in the 1760s. Its records date from 1765. The late William J. Hinke originally translated the records for the years 1765-1842 f rom German to English, and his manuscript has been microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah. The records in this database span from 1755 to 1801 and include the names of more than 5,500 individuals.Ó
Ancestry.com database
26. Albert H. Gerberich, Brenneman History, The, Copyright 1938, reprinted 1988 By Selby Publ., Selby Publishing and Printin 3405 Zartman Rd, Kokomo, Indiana 46902, cited by source Barbara Christie <barbgeni@ix.netcom.com> Via Rootsweb World Connect Tree Entry,
27. Baltzer, son. found in Will abstract, Michael Quickel see source #1
28. York County, Pennsylvania, 1765-1803: Quickel's (Zion) Lutheran and Reformed Church.  Lineages, Inc., comp. [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000. Records transcribed from Family History Library copies of church records for this locality. For more information, see Family History Library Catalog (FHLC) #0020346.žLocated in Conewago Township in York County, Pennsylvania, Quickel's Church, also called Zion's Church, was organized in the 1760s. Its records date from 1765. The late William J. Hinke originally translated the records for the years 1765-1842 f rom German to English, and his manuscript has been microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah. The records in this database span from 1755 to 1801 and include the names of more than 5,500 individuals.Ó
Ancestry.com database Balthasar as father in childrenŪs baptisms.
29. žTom & Donna's Home Page,Ó viewed 040101, http://www.gendex.com/users/hoffmast/seelig/index.htm, Balthasar žBaltzerÓ.
30. Barbara , wife of Michael Quickel,  her Will abstract:
QUICKEL, Barbara.  Dover Township.
August 5, 1795    June 29, 1802
Executor:  John Quickel.
Children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Philip Miller, John, and Balthasser.
Grandchildren:  John and Ann (children of John), and Barbara Miller (child of Barbara).URL http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/pa/york/wills/willabstrp-s.txt son Balthasser.
31. Ibid.
32. Laura Morrison, Sources apparant but link doesnŪt work, žQuickel Descendants,Ó http://www.laura.morrison.net/pafg12.htm#1536, Catharine.
33. York County, Pennsylvania, 1765-1803: Quickel's (Zion) Lutheran and Reformed Church.  Lineages, Inc., comp. [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000. Records transcribed from Family History Library copies of church records for this locality. For more information, see Family History Library Catalog (FHLC) #0020346.žLocated in Conewago Township in York County, Pennsylvania, Quickel's Church, also called Zion's Church, was organized in the 1760s. Its records date from 1765. The late William J. Hinke originally translated the records for the years 1765-1842 f rom German to English, and his manuscript has been microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah. The records in this database span from 1755 to 1801 and include the names of more than 5,500 individuals.Ó
Ancestry.com database Quickel, Catharina-sponsors at chldrens baptisms ar e FINCK.
34. Will abstract, Michael Quickel
QUICKEL, Michael.  Dover Township.
July 10, 1785    July 29, 1788
Executors:  Henry Mathias and John Kochenour.
Wife:  Barbara Quickel.
Children:  John, Michael, Barbara m. ----
Krider, Elizabeth m. Michael Kreider, Maria m. Conrad Ensminger,
Catharine m. Jacob Barr, Anna, and Baltzer.
Stepson and daughter:  Henry Bohmer, and Mary m. Philip Miller.
URL
http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/pa/york/wills/willabstrp-s.txt dtr anna, no husband mentioned.
35. Barbara , wife of Michael Quickel,  her Will abstract:
QUICKEL, Barbara.  Dover Township.
August 5, 1795    June 29, 1802
Executor:  John Quickel.
Children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Philip Miller, John, and Balthasser.
Grandchildren:  John and Ann (children of John), and Barbara Miller (child of Barbara).URL http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/pa/york/wills/willabstrp-s.txt dtr anna married Conrad Fry.
36. York County, Pennsylvania, 1765-1803: Quickel's (Zion) Lutheran and Reformed Church.  Lineages, Inc., comp. [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000. Records transcribed from Family History Library copies of church records for this locality. For more information, see Family History Library Catalog (FHLC) #0020346.žLocated in Conewago Township in York County, Pennsylvania, Quickel's Church, also called Zion's Church, was organized in the 1760s. Its records date from 1765. The late William J. Hinke originally translated the records for the years 1765-1842 f rom German to English, and his manuscript has been microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah. The records in this database span from 1755 to 1801 and include the names of more than 5,500 individuals.Ó
Ancestry.com database anna barbara Quickle was sponsor to her neice [brother johnŪs wife] 1792.
37. žTom & Donna's Home Page,Ó viewed 040101, http://www.gendex.com/users/hoffmast/seelig/index.htm, cites; Descendants of Hans Quickel Published on the internet. Laura Morrison.
38. Ibid. cites: Descendants of Hans Quickel Published on the internet. Laura Morrison.
39. Barbara , wife of Michael Quickel,  her Will abstract:
QUICKEL, Barbara.  Dover Township.
August 5, 1795    June 29, 1802
Executor:  John Quickel.
Children:  Anna m. Conrad Fry, Henry, Barbara m. Philip Miller, John, and Balthasser.
Grandchildren:  John and Ann (children of John), and Barbara Miller (child of Barbara).URL http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/pa/york/wills/willabstrp-s.txt son in law dtr anna married Conrad Fry.
40. žDescendants of Jacob Heckler,Ó Unsourced Website, Linda F. Harris, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~digginforroots/heckle/hecklejacob.htm, viewed 062601.

41.
Laura Morrisons Family Treemaker Webpages. for Christophel Quickel. Not sourced at location, but frequently sited by other online studies.
 

42. Laura Morrisons Family Treemaker Webpages. for Michael Quickel Not sourced at location, but frequently sited by other online studies.


43. Olive Tree Ships List for The John [Perth Amboy] . States " Ship Brig John, 10/19/1736  Source: This quote is from pages 167-168 of Pennsylvania German Pioneers, A Publication of the  Original Lists of Arrivals In the Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808, by Ralph Beaver Strassburger,  LL.D., President of the Pennsylvania German Society, and Edited by William John Hinke, PH.D., D.D, In Three Volumes, Volume 1, 1727 - 1775, published by Pennsylvania German Society, Norristown,  Pennsylvania, 1934. (Transcriber's note: There was no List 43A.)"

44.  Barry Rauhauser ž The Individual Behind the ArtÓ Citation at work: ›1 Quickel, David.› The Quickel History.› York:› York Historical Society, 1961.›
This is part of a study apparantly reviewed at The Gazette: Newsletter of the Mid-Atlantic Popular / American Culture Association December 1999 / January 2000 and citing Barry Rauhauser, then undergraduate winner of MAPACA Conference's  "The Daniel Walden Student Paper Competition"  for his work:  "How the Craftsman Interprets Culture: The Pennsylvanian German Gravestones of Johannes Quickel" and presented here on line with permission of the Author in pages relevant to John Quickel [the subject of the study] 

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